In the June 2013 issue of Child Poverty Insights Rajendra K. Pachauri and Meena Sehgal from The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), and Anand Krishnan from the All India Institute for Medical Sciences, highlight the adverse effects of indoor air pollution on child health in India, and set forth proposal on the potential of cleaner energy for the reduction of child mortality.
In India indoor air pollution cause by the burning of biomass fuels is among the most serious threats to the health of children under five years. Child deaths linked to indoor air pollution are largely avoidable by replacing biomass fuels with safer fuels, and improving the combustion of bio-fuels to reduce the amount of smoke generated.
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Tuesday, July 23, 2013
Monday, July 1, 2013
The Indonesia Child Poverty Study is the result of an intense undertaking and collaboration between SMERU Research Institute, the Ministry of Planning and UNICEF. It is the first Child Poverty Study undertaken in Indonesia and has raised the interest of many Government, NGO, donor, academia and other partners.
It will be one of the studies used by the Government for the preparation of its next Five-Year National Plan and 25 year Poverty Reduction Plan and has been presented at various forums at the national, sub-national and international level.
The Study is currently being updated by SMERU for UNICEF and the update will also be further shared with colleagues.
Focal point: Niloufar Pourzand, UNICEF Indonesia
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Friday, June 14, 2013
At UNICEF Nicaragua, we have introduced ‘design thinking’ into policy-making. The concept invites us to look at public services as designers. To focus on the experience of service users as a departure point for improving these same services, and therefore their impact on people. So when we teamed up with the government at the Northern Autonomous Atlantic Region (RAAN) in Nicaragua to develop a regional policy for children, we seized on the opportunity to use this innovative approach to support the rights of kids in the region.
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Friday, June 7, 2013
The Lao Government recently launched a Study highlighting its recognition of the need to focus development efforts on the poorest and most marginalized segments of society – especially for advancing the well-being of children.
The National Commission for Mothers and Children, in partnership with the Ministry of Planning and Investment, used the launch as an opportunity to stress the need for equity-focused approaches as the most practical and cost effective ways of meeting health and other Millennium Development Goals for children.
Speaking at the launch, Mr. Litou Bouapao, Vice-Chair of the National Commission for Mothers and Children, drew attention to Laos’s sustained economic growth and political achievements over the past decade, but noted that the benefits had yet to reach all segments of society.
“This growth brings new opportunities to the people of the Lao PDR, including its growing population of children and young people,” Mr. Litou said in her opening remarks. “Despite our growth, our stability and countless achievements we are challenged with bringing benefits to the poorest and the most vulnerable.
Supported by UNICEF, the ‘Study on Child Well-Being and Disparities in Lao PDR’, draws attention to the fact that geographic location, ethnicity and the education level of mothers are highly dependent factors in a child’s wellbeing, indicated by issues such as the likelihood of surviving early childhood, accessing adequate healthcare, education and improved drinking water and sanitation.
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Tuesday, May 28, 2013
A number of countries around the world are faced with the increasingly high costs and regressive nature of fuel subsidies but are struggling with their reform given likely negative impacts on well-being. In Ghana, the government recently removed the majority of the subsidy on fuel and scaled up its funding to social protection, including a tripling of the budget allocation to the national cash transfer programme.
Analysis proves that subsidies on petrol are regressive, with 70% of direct benefits accruing to the wealthiest quintile on average in Africa, while less than 3% of direct benefits are received by the poorest 20% of households*. Conversely, we know that many direct social transfer programmes are far more pro-poor - Ghana's national cash transfer programme (LEAP) is one of the better targeted with 75% of its benefits reaching the poorest two quintiles.
As national debate mounted after the elections, and the preparation of the 2013 budget was underway, Ghana's new government chose to remove the majority of the subsidy on fuel (petrol and diesel in particular), thereby avoiding a cost to the budget of well over
1 billion USD in the year.
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Monday, May 6, 2013
In the March Child Poverty Insights issue, Pamela Morris, J. Lawrence Aber, Sharon Wolf and Juliette Berg from New York University Steinhard highlight findings from New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Family Rewards Program), and how incentives linked to the program have impacted the way teenagers spend their time. The Family Rewards have increased the proportion of teenagers that spend their time predominantly in academice activities. In addition, the Family Rewards had a sizeable positive impact on parents' saving for their teenager's future education, demonstrating that the program did increase parents' investment in children's human capital. This CPI issue highlights the benefits of measuring the potential pathways by which cash transfers are thought to impact children and youth.
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Friday, May 3, 2013
Over a billion people worldwide live on less than $1.25 a day. But that number is falling. This has given credence to the idea that extreme poverty can be eliminated in a generation. A new study by Brookings researchers examines the prospects for ending extreme poverty by 2030 and the factors that will determine progress toward this goal. Below are some of the key findings:
- We are at a unique point in history where there are more people in the world living right around the $1.25 mark than at any other income level. This implies that equitable growth in the developing world will result in more movement of people across the poverty line than across any other level.
- Sustaining the trend rate of global poverty reduction requires that each year a new set of individuals is primed to cross the international poverty line. This will become increasingly difficult as some of the poorest of the poor struggle to make enough progress to approach the $1.25 threshold over the next twenty years.
- The period from 1990 to 2030 resembles a relay race in which responsibility for leading the charge on global poverty reduction passes between China, India and sub-Saharan Africa. China has driven progress over the last twenty years, but with its poverty rate now down in the single digits, the baton is being passed to India. India has the capacity to deliver sustained progress on global poverty reduction over the next decade based on modest assumptions of equitable growth. Once India’s poverty is largely exhausted, it will be up to sub-Saharan Africa to run the final relay leg and bring the baton home. This poses a significant challenge as most of Africa’s poor people start a long way behind the poverty line.
- As global poverty approaches zero, it becomes increasingly concentrated in countries where the record of and prospects for poverty reduction are weakest. Today, a third of the world’s poor live in fragile states but this share could rise to half in 2018 and nearly two-thirds in 2030.
- The World Bank has recently set a goal to reduce extreme poverty around the world to under 3 percent by 2030. It is unlikely that this goal can be achieved by stronger than expected growth across the developing world, or greater income equality within each developing country, alone. Both factors are needed simultaneously.
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